Cool Discoveries on Google

I am a super nerd. I ask weird questions of winemakers and search strange combinations of terms in a Boolean Search.

I wanted to share a couple of findings (all wine-related) that may not deserve their own individual threads.

Here are two historical maps of the Bedrock Vineyard.

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I will also probably share a few “new” wine operations in the future.

Pretty cool. Thanks for sharing.

I thought on first look the top was a new Mouton label.

Here’s the breakdown of Papera Ranch:

13.7 acres / 5.5 hectares planted
1 acre / 0.4 hectares fallow
1 acre / 0.4 hectares house & landscape
1.5 acres / 0.6 hectares avenues & access
17.2 acres / 7 hectares total

8’ x 8’ spacing (2.5m x 2.5m)
10,534 vines (including 637 replants)

Soil Type:
Huichica Loam

Location and Elevation:
N38º28’2” W122º49’8”
101ft/31m above sea level"

Block 6 goes to Bedrock, and it has all the fun stuff. I haven’t tasted their iteration of Papera, but I love Carlisle’s bottling!!!

“Identification…is still a work in progress, but so far we have counted the following vines:
608 Carignane
20 Valdiguié
16 Petite Sirah (Durif)
7 Syrah
7 Mission (perhaps)
5 ‘something Cabernet-like’
5 French Colombard
2 Muscat
1 Aubun
1 Cabernet Sauvignon
1 Palomino (aka Chasselas)
1 Pinot Noir or Chardonnay (young replant)
Block 5 is a fallow acre. As a celebration of the 75th anniversary of the original rootstock planting, this block is being prepared to receive St. George rootstock in 2009. It is intended that this block will be grafted with a modern field blend, exact varietals and makeup yet to be decided, in tribute to Charley Papera’s original work.”

Source: Welcome to the Papera Ranch Website
Papera Ranch Blocks.jpg

I believe that this historic map of Napa appears on some wine label now. Good map.

Painfully detailed texture maps of USA (divided into grids).

Sonoma County Access Report (July 2014)
Sonoma_Wineries_AccessReportJune2014CntyProdCap.pdf (2.02 MB)

1960 Colorado map is awesome.

From the “Wayward Tendrils” website:

In Honor of Ernest P. Peninou (1916-2002)
—Gail Unzelman, Editor

“When Mr. Peninou died in October 2002, I sorted through his countless crates of manuscript papers to assemble the six remaining histories of this seven-volume series, along with the grape acreage statistical history. These histories – covering the El Dorado Viticultural District, Los Angeles Viticultural District, Napa Viticultural District, Sacramento Viticultural District, San Francisco Viticultural District, San Joaquin Viticultural District, and the State’s grape acreage figures – are available.”

“Each viticultural district history includes

• descriptive text (from the beginnings to c1960) • grape acreage statistics (1856-1992) with county, district, and state totals

• directories of grape growers (1860-1900) • illustrations and index.

Many of the illustrations are photographs taken by Mr. Peninou during his wine country researches in the 1950s, and have not been previously printed.
These seven volumes are chock-full of California wine industry information and will be an invaluable asset to any student, librarian, or researcher of California wine history.”

Here are some interesting discoveries I have recently stumbled across:

The UC Davis Library website’s “News” page features many categories for exploration. Unfortunately, quite a few require student enrollment credentials to access.

Various “Interviews” are available of knowledgeable folks who are not members of the staff, like Gail Unzelman…

UC Davis Library: Interviews
“Interview with Wayward Tendrils Publisher Gail Unzelman”
January 6, 2021

The California Association of Wine Growers is a massive organization. The 2021 Member Directory is a searchable document that may assist in tracking down information about specific wineries and growers.

“CAWG 2021 Member Directory”

How about some fun websites to play around with when your attention wanders?

Traffic Simulator:

Rain Simulator:

Virtual Ocean Sounds:


Learn SQL Game:

The Internet Archive includes many lists of bonded wineries for different years from the US Department of Treasury.

Internet Archive
All Search Results:
“Bonded Wineries and Bonded Wine Cellars Authorized to Operate”

This archived government resource includes color-image maps for each county in California. The boundaries of geologic features have been transposed onto what appears to be aerial photographs of the landscape. Individual sections of cropland often are visible.

Hathi Trust Online Archive
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service (1972)
Soil Survey, Sonoma County, California
by Vernon C. Miller

Hathi Trust Online Archive
Search Results:
“Soil Surveys California”

Modern Resources for Geological Maps & Information:

USDA National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS)

· Online Web Soil Survey Interactive Map:

· Published Soil Surveys for California:

USGS Mineral Resources
Online Data
Interactive Map:

If you are interested in the geology of California, the following websites are helpful and accessible.

Natural History Journal Blog
“What Makes California California: More Than You Ever Cared to Know About Geomorphology”
May 19, 2020

CA Dept of Conservation
Geologic Map of California (interactive)

GeoTripper Blog

Additional Tools:

CA Dept of Conservation
Geospatial Data and Web Maps: “Subject Areas”

Capstone California features comprehensive breakdowns of various wine producing areas of the state by history, acreage of vineyards, annual wine grape harvests, geology, notable wineries, etc.

Capstone California website:


The USGS National Water Information System web interface page provides access to current and historic data for surface water (lakes, rivers, streams), ground water (wells), water use, and water quality for thousands of locations across the nation.

The National Water Dashboard Interactive Map is a new tool to simplify seeking area-specific information. In addition to displaying data-measuring stations, current weather conditions are viewable.

USGS NWIS website:

USGS Water Data Interactive Map:

Without needing Photoshop, you can remove the background from any image using the following webtool:

Remove BG

Sample images are provided to allow the curious to view how this site works.

Vintroux Newsletter
“Napa and Sonoma County Real Estate: Market Elements, Vineyard Values, and Wine Grape Prices”

by David Ashcraft

“In this newsletter we are going to highlight various elements that drive market value. Furthermore we will share the most recent statistics on vineyard values and wine grape prices of popular varietals. This will hopefully be a resource you can use and refer to over the coming months and years.”

“…Vineyard, Plantable Land & Site Values”
"Next we have the current values for vineyard, plantable land and site values throughout Napa and Sonoma counties. As you can see from the graph below, the values have a dramatic range. Napa County is broken down into three segments: Primary, Secondary and Outlying. The highest prices are being paid for super premium Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards in the primary areas like Rutherford and Howell Mountain where vineyards are being sold for upwards of $400k / acre. In Sonoma County Pinot Noir is leading the charge for highest prices, we are seeing super premium vineyards trade at $150,000 + / acre in the Russian River and Sonoma Coast Appellations. There is very high demand for super premium Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir vineyards.

“The other factor many potential buyers are not aware of is the site value. The site value may very well be the most valuable component of a property. The site value consists of the actual building site potential of a property. The site would be where a home or winery is built. The location, setting, views, access and entitlements all contribute to the site value. It is safe to say that there is a great deal of nuance in breaking down the value of a property, but this is a good place to start…”.

Vintroux Blog
“Napa & Sonoma Wine Grape Price Report”

March 2021

The following blog contains many entries related to the scientific factors and influences on grape and wine production. Much of the focus is on European sites, though plenty of American locations are explored as well.

Mowse Blog: Wine - Mis en Abyme

“Soil Types”


Mowse Blog: Wine - Mis en Abyme
"FlavorNet: A Comprehensive Source of Wine Aroma Descriptors"
March 26, 2012

FlavorNet website: Link
“Flavornet and Human Odor Space”
by Terry Acree & Heinrich Arn

“Gas Chromatography - Olfactometry (GCO) of Natural Products Sponsored by DATU Inc.
(There are 738 odorants listed as of 6.25.04)”


"Flavornet is a compilation of aroma compounds found in human odor space. A seemingly infinite number of perceptions are invoked by less than 1000 odorants that make up this space. These chemicals with mass less than 300 Daltons bind to proteins on the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Excitation of ORNs generates a topographic map of sensory information in the brain that is a representation of the stimulating chemical features of the external world. The Flavornet lists only those odorants that have been found in a human odor space at supra-threshold levels i.e. at levels likely to stimulate ORNs.

"In Flavornet odorants are arranged by chromatographic and sensory properties. Except for indexing standards the data have been taken from published research using GCO. They are listed by retention indices both Kovats n-paraffin and ethyl ester on four different substrates. A link to a summary page containing chemical properties, sensory descriptors, bibliographies and pdb (protein data bank) files of MM2 minimized structures is provided for each ligand. To be included in Flavornet an odorant must have been detected in a natural product or real environment by some form of quantitative GCO method e.g. dilution analysis (Aroma Extraction Dilution Analysis or CharmAnalysis™) perceived intensity analysis (e.g. Osme) or detection frequency analysis (e.g. SNIFF). Therefore, the Flavornet lists only those volatiles that humans use in their chemical ecology.

"Once on the list, missing data about an odorant was filled in with estimates (shown in square brackets). These estimates will be replaced with experimental measurements as they become available. In every case data from the first report of a GCO detection will be used unless a more accurate report is subsequently made, then, the new data will be included along with the original.

“The present data was collected from articles published since 1984 using GCO to detect odorants in natural products. In the summers of 2003 and 2004 Hannah E. Collins, Yale University, read over 100 of these articles and checked the chemical data for the odorants against the Chemical Abstract Service databases…”.

“Odorant / Odor List”

Below are a few resources of information for fans of Napa Valley wine and its culture/history.

Napa Valley Vintners

Vintage Reports

· Vintage Charts:

· Vintage Recaps:"

"2021The Joy is Back

“The 2021 vintage will be remembered for low yields with intensely-flavored, small-sized berries and a smooth and uneventful harvest season. The season started off with very little rain, leading to the 2nd year of drought conditions in Napa Valley, Harvest began early with white wine grapes picked on July 30th and red wine grapes beginning on August 31. While concerning in the long term, the drought of 2021 resulted in a more natural load on the vines, requiring less pruning and dropping of fruit. The resulting grapes are packed full of flavor. Winemakers across the valley are excited about the prospects of the 2021s and it is likely the smaller yields per vine and smaller berry size will result in another amazing vintage from Napa Valley.”

"2020Despite the Challenges, the 2020 Vintage will not be Absent from the History Book

“The 2020 season will be remembered for factors beyond the normal measurements. Here in the valley, it was a warm, dry winter and we didn’t start to see rain and cold weather until the end of March. While the mild spring season gave us a great early start, the wineries of Napa Valley worked under extensive safety protocols due to the COVID pandemic. Summer brought very cool mornings and very warm days. This build-up to harvest was interrupted by two wildfires as we turned to the fall; The LNU Complex Fire started on August 17th and the Glass Fire started on September 27. The white wine harvest started in early August, the wines are showing excellent development in cellars, reflecting the fine vintage year. While the red wine harvest will be smaller than usual, most wineries were able to move forward with red wine vinification. While the 2020 Napa Valley harvest proved to be one of the most challenging in history, our winemakers remain not only optimistic but committed to bottling wines of the highest quality. The story of this vintage will continue to unfold over the years to come.”

"2019A long, warm summer and mild finish to the season

“The beginning of the 2019 growing season was defined by copious rainfall and late soil moisture. The long, warm summer saw very few extreme heat events, with foggy mornings setting the stage for vibrant and expressive wines. The long, relatively mild finish to the season, not without its moments of unpredictability, helped to preserve freshness and finesse in the fruit with abundant hang time teasing out great color, structure and soft tannins. Volume is looking to be about average to a little less than average. All in all, exceptional fruit with bright acidity and ample texture promises an amazing vintage…”.

Napa Valley Sessions Video Collection:

Napa Valley Wine Library

NVWL Report Online Archive (UC Davis):

Spring Mountain District Historical Podcasts (Oral History):

Napa Valley Register
“Growers, Vintners Share Oral Histories of St. Helena’s Spring Mountain District”

by Jesse Duarte
August 12, 2019

"The unique mountain wines and colorful characters of St. Helena’s Spring Mountain are the subject of a series of oral history podcasts released by the Spring Mountain District Association.

"Jeff Schechtman, founder and manager of, interviewed 21 vintners and growers for 19 podcasts. The series is available at

“'To our knowledge, no other wine-growing region has presented a comprehensive set of oral histories of this type,” said Association President Sheldon Richards…".

Alternate Link

I stumbled across two online archives of old wine labels.

The “Amerine Collection” at UC Davis consists of >4000 labels, though they are not well organized. An incredibly diverse selection of wine and brandy labels are represented.

The “CA Wine Label & Ephemera Collection” from the California Historical Society, though smaller in size and scope, can be navigated with comparative ease.

UC Davis General Library
Dept. of Special Collections
“Amerine (Maynard) Wine Label Collection”

Hallcrest Vyd 1943 Cab Sauv, SCM

Chateau Haut Brion 1929

“Amerine Collection” Collection Samples:

· Buena Vista Zinfandel, Sonoma

· Hallcrest Vyd Riesling, Santa Cruz Mountains

· Valliant Riesling, California

California Historical Society
Islandora Repository
“California Wine Label and Ephemera Collection”

Scope: The bulk of the collection comprises wine labels and ephemera created by California winemakers and wine companies in the 1930s and 1940s. The core of the collection consists of wine labels printed by Lehmann Printing and Lithographing Co. in San Francisco in the 1930s and '40s. (Most undated labels fall into this group, although some may date from the nineteenth century). In addition to wine labels, the collection contains a small number of labels for beer and other liquor manufacturers in California, mostly dating from the 1930s and '40s.”

California Historical Society Blog
“California Vintage: Wine and Spirits in the Golden State”

by Marie Silva & Shelley Kale
January 26, 2017

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